Saturday, August 22, 2020

Computers and Multimedia Applications essays

PCs and Multimedia Applications papers Sight and sound is the same old thing. The idea of human correspondence has consistently included interactive media. We hear, talk, compose, draw, make motions, play music, and showcase our considerations and emotions to each other. We have appreciated mixed media introductions since our adolescence through film, TV, and, all the more as of late, tape, videodisk, and computerized video plate. These have all included simple media. What makes ongoing advancements in interactive media new and energizing is that we would now be able to manage these different media in a computerized design. The advanced configuration permits control, sharing, and converging of information in manners that simple can't. For instance, essayists can join computerized pictures into a word preparing record. They can record and alter sounds to interface with pictures or content, allowing the information types to fill numerous needs with at least improving. Clients can program the PC to look for records arbitrari ly, to store these various documents carefully, similarly as any PC record. They can alter this data, killing pointless parts, changing them, or including elective information or enhancements †all without costly postproduction. Mixed media brings out various pictures relying upon the audience or the peruser's understanding. Mixed media is characterized as an intuitive PC interceded introduction that incorporates at any rate two of the accompanying components: content, sound, still realistic pictures, movement designs, and liveliness (Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia. Robert S. Tannenbaum (c. 1998)). Indeed, even the unedited release of The World Book Dictionary (c. 1990) leaves space for understanding by characterizing the term as utilizing a blend of different media. A few people get sight and sound to mean the utilization of at least two kinds of media in a similar item. We realize that CD-ROMS (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory) can store for all intents and purposes any kind of digitized data. On the off chance that we can digitize the information, we can likewise store it on a CD-ROM simply like any othe... <!

Friday, August 21, 2020

buy custom Conducting an Oral History essay

purchase custom Conducting an Oral History article Because of the longing to become familiar with American history, Oral Interviews end up being the best method of extricating data. In addition to the fact that it yielded more than was required I had the chance to look for explanation on verifiable connection between the American culture and the developing populace. This depended on current undertakings corresponding to the developing economy and work. The fundamental exercises scholarly were on Mexico-United States migration. This paper gives a knowledge into the genuine oral meeting. Towards building up an expansive comprehension concerning American issues like current issues and recorded associations, impacts of migration on present day American history, and American life and culture, it is essential to do an oral meeting. The oral history meet in this report is improved with the aim to look at American history from a wide point of view. With this understanding, this report precisely presents a nitty gritty oral meeting concerning issues of America. The name of the interviewee is James and he is matured seventy five years, with immense experience regarding the matter of the previously mentioned American issues. This clarifies the best explanation with regards to why James is picked over others. The report includes various kinds of inquiries posed to the interviewee, the sort of answers gave, experience picked up from the meeting, and new things learnt regarding the matter of history as a rule and concerning the interviewee specifically. Kind of Questions Asked in the Interview In some random meeting, instructions the interviewee according to the topic is constantly basic; as this opens courses through seeing each other is improved. In this situation, preparation James the interviewee about the task on history course is the primary thing before starting on the inquiries. In the wake of making a divulgence to the interviewee, the fundamental inquiries posed spin around issues identifying with American history. For example, the general discussion in the meeting concerns how the interviewee life was during his youth and concerning where he was during the event of these American occasions (Baker, 2008). This is notwithstanding, scrutinizing the interviewee his contemplations relating to the above American memorable occasions that he survived. The fundamental inquiries in this meeting identify with the impacts of migration on present day American history, and American life and culture. For example, what are the ffects of migration on present day American History (Davidson, 2006)? How does the American life and culture identify with the issue of movement? The above inquiries are posed to the interviewee in a neighborly language, so as to give him opportunity to react to the compactly. Kind of Answers Provided in the Interview Subsequent to having a profound discussion with the interviewee, different answers in regards to the above posed inquiry and which identify with the American history are given in a rationale way. As indicated by the gave answers, plainly American current undertakings and verifiable associations are contributing variables coming about to significant advancements in the nation these days. For example, a portion of the gave answer identifying with the subject on impacts of migration on present day American history obviously illuminate on how movement is influencing the economy of the United States (Davidson, 2006). From the meeting, I noticed that a portion of the impacts of movement on current history of America identify with issues relating to the economy and work. The appropriate responses show that the impacts of migration and the United States economy are generally ordered as a subject of discussion, as this is straightforwardly connections to the economy and governmental issues of the country. It is very reasonable as per the appropriate responses of the meeting that the impacts of movement contribute both contrarily and decidedly in the development of United States economy (Rush, 2007). Also, American life and culture characterizes the manner by which the transients relate with the locals. Exercise Learnt from the Experience of the meeting Meetings give most brilliant opportunities to picking up experience concerning different subjects. From this meeting, I discovered that a portion of the present undertakings in the American history have a fundamental association with noteworthy issues. For example, the issue relating to the economy is a present issue in the legislature of the U.S. In any case, a similar issue follows back to the hour of workers and colonization. This is an unmistakable sign that, the nearness of a developing economy is because of the event of foreigners throughout the entire existence of the United States. The way that foreigners give work to low wages is a purpose behind a developing economy in the United States. It is very evident that history assumes a vital job in deciding how the future will resemble. Along these lines, American history of settlers is a deciding element of the economy of the country. New Things Learnt Conncerning History and the Interviewee From this meeting, obviously migration is a term characterizing the development of occupants into a given region. This is the presentation of new individuals into a given new populace; henceforth the strategy happens because of a few elements. The United States is a significant goal for individual movement. The US-Mexico stays a most loved improvement as it isolates people living in an affluent and a creating nation (Baker, 2008). The difficulty of movement stays imperative with Mexicans crossing the fringe in search for greener fields and too sneak medications into the well off state. The Mexico - United States Border has a broad record. Financial development in the United States saw Mexico slack at the back, thus bringing about monetary contrasts. Mexico stays notorious for medicate assembling and carrying and the presence of a set market and employment risks in the United States broadens the scope of the trouble (Davidson, 2006). Different films and compositions are composed indicating how the outskirt keeps on influencing the lives of an individual living on the two sides. The formation of the boundary appears to be fundamental to limit with unlawful relocation and pirating of medications and different assets. The meeting along these lines gives a ton of data concerning the outskirt and its accidents on the lives of the numerous individuals. The historical backdrop of the United States and Mexico rotates much around the barricade, and furthermore assumes a primary job towards improving the relationship between the two countries regarding exchange and economy. With respect to meet, the interviewee has tremendous experience concerning American issues relating to current undertakings and chronicled associations, impacts of migration on present day American history, and American life and culture (Rush, 2007). Through plainly dissecting focuses and giving models where material, the interviewee shows the significant advances happening in the American history. End From the above meeting, it is very clear that the impacts of movement result to both negative and positive changes in the development of U.S economy. American issues much the same as present undertakings and recorded associations, impacts of movement on current American history, and American life and culture are increasingly identified with the countries governmental issues and economy. Directing an oral history meet is basic towards comprehension the past and contrasting and what's to come. Purchase custom Conducting an Oral History paper

Saturday, June 27, 2020

SAT Essay †Common Misconceptions

1. Do not use â€Å"I† Let me say it loud and clear: it is okay to use â€Å"I† in your essay. So what’s with the big hullabaloo over â€Å"I†? Well, at some point you had a well-meaning English teacher who, with stern brow, wrote in all caps on the board that you should never use â€Å"I†. And once, you probably tested that out, only to bear the full brunt of the teacher’s wrath. This teacher was probably from middle school, and she had a point: if you allow middle school students to use â€Å"I† in their essays, their intro paragraphs alone will have more glaring â€Å"I’s†, so to speak, than a circus of Cyclops. So over time you should have learned to avoid using â€Å"I†. Even now, using â€Å"I†, even in the thesis statement, simply isn’t necessary. However, if you feel that â€Å"I† fits naturally into your prose go ahead and use it. Just don’t use it more than a few times. 2. You must always write out your examples in your thesis statement We don’t have to all the way back to middle school to find a teacher who has told you to always include your examples in your intro paragraph. You probably have a teacher today who demands this very convention. However, the SAT grader couldn’t care less. For you, not including the examples, offers the distinct advantage of saving time. You can get into your examples as you deal with each body paragraph. Just don’t forget to go back to the way your teachers likes it, when you are not writing the SAT essay. 3. You cannot start a sentence with â€Å"because† or â€Å"and† This isn’t SAT specific—I just thought I’d include it, because it applies to all writing, even though you’ve probably been taught otherwise. And that doesn’t mean I’m suggesting you begin all, or even any of your sentences, with either words (look, I just started this sentence with â€Å"And†). Just know it is 100% okay to do so, as long as you remember the following: what follows â€Å"and† or â€Å"because† must be a complete sentence. â€Å"Because I’m tired† is not a sentence. It is a subordinate clause—more commonly known as a â€Å"fragment†. Just add a sentence to it: â€Å"Because I am tired, I will go to sleep.† 4. All I have to do is follow the five-paragraph format The SAT essay can definitely pretty formulaic. That fact has, unfortunately, led many to believe that they just have to knock out a few example-heavy body paragraphs, and sandwich that between a short intro and an even shorter conclusion, and voila! They have at least a â€Å"10†. The graders will not be lulled into acceptance by your cookie-cutter essay. Your essay must be well-reasoned; your examples must be well-chosen (and developed!); and your writing style must be varied for you to get a high-score. Think of the structure as a way to keep you focused and on-topic.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Presence And Outbreak Of An Infectious Disease

Philip Jason Callimanis Professor Henshaw POLS 170 12/17/15 The presence and outbreak of an infectious disease can have global consequences. Such consequences include the deaths of many people due to an inability to contain the disease. When an infectious disease spreads to, and affects, different populations, this is known as a pandemic. One pandemic that has had far reaching consequences is that of HIV (human immunodeficiency)/AIDS (acquired immune deficiency symptoms), which officially began in 1981 and since has taken the lives of over 39 million people worldwide (PBS). The HIV virus attacks one’s â€Å"T-cells,† which are vital to one’s immune system. Someone infected with the virus becomes increasingly susceptible to contracting†¦show more content†¦An example of the realist approach to dealing with the HIV/AIDS pandemic is the United States’s efforts to distribute AIDS medications. While an organization called â€Å"The Global Fund† already existed to help combat AIDS, tuberculosis, and mala ria, the United States established its own organization called PEPFAR (President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) to provide antiretrovirals to those infected (Henshaw 11/18). By creating its own program, over which it would exercise administrative control, the U.S. demonstrated self-interest, whereas the Global Fund allows entry to a wide a variety of countries. The Global Fund is actually an example of liberal ideology. The central idea behind liberal ideology in relation to the HIV/AIDS pandemic is the notion of mutual gain, whereby states, through working together, can expedite the process of containing or curing the infectious disease. To further the notion of mutual gain, states view working together as beneficial because pandemics affect global security and the global economy. During pandemics, there is increased tension globally due to fear, and a negative effect on the global economy due to the cost of treating those who are infected, along with the cost of research ing and developing drugs to help combat the disease (Nau 447). Liberalism

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Medical And Legal Fields About Assisted Suicide

Maggie O’Grady Theresa Mix Honors Comp. 1 10 November 2015 Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of a Means to an End There are a multitude of interpretations within both the medical and legal fields about assisted suicide. The benefits of assisted suicide for a terminally ill individual are notably momentous. However, the argument is not extricated from opposition concerned with the obligations of the medical community. It is paramount to have an even-handed perception of the issue and present each side but recognize that the rights of the individual in arbitrating the specific route of his or her death, specifically in lethal cases where physical agony is a vital concern. Additionally, having admittance to physician-assisted suicide grants†¦show more content†¦Every capable human being is granted the right of determining the fashion in which to live their life. This fundamental right should naturally be extended towards individuals deteriorating at the hands of their terminal conditions and allow them control over the timing and manner of death they wish to face. It is an essential human prerogative to have management over one’s personal welfare. As a matter of fact, it is crucial towards the means of sustaining and upholding our human rights; our rights to determine our own direction, state of being, and eventual fate. If autonomy is a highly valued principle, it is logical that patients should have the right to participate in all end-of-life decisions (Fraser 16). A democratic society that honors justice and liberty should acknowledge and permit divergent opinions and allow dying people a degree of freedom in when and how it comes to an end (Fraser 18). The lives of terminally ill patients are recurrently demoted to perpetual hospital visits and countless hours of treatments and surgeries. According to Oregon’s Department of Human Resources, 79% of persons who chose physician-assisted suicide did not wait until they were bedridden to take their lethal medication, thus providing further evidence that controlling the manner and time of death were important issues to these patients (Department). How to Die in Oregon is a documentary that examines real life reverberations

Rising Costs in Australian Housing Free-Samples for Students

Question: 1.Why house prices are so high in these two capital cities and provide evidence to support your answer. 2.Suggest ways the house prices can be contained (reduced) and provide evidence to support your answer 3.If you are a young Professional with a very young family, provide reasons how one can afford to buy into such an Expensive Housing Market in Sydney or Melbourne at such current high price and provide evidence to support your answer. Answers: Rising Costs in Australian Housing Introduction The cities of Melbourne and Sydney are experiencing soaring house prices that create anxiety in the market. Far much, the case provides worry to the housing sector since the prices are too high compared to the wage rates thereby limiting the ability of individuals owning houses. There have been claims that the rising costs in housing result from the inadequate housing facilities that prompt a high demand for the houses. According to Wood, Smith, Cigdem, and Ong, (2017), immigrants, upon realizing a market opportunity have infiltrated the industry by purchasing the houses and later making a resale at relatively high prices. The paper looks into the causes of the rising prices, finds solutions towards cushioning the citizens from the situation, and the avenues through which individuals can secure cheaper means towards owning a house in the volatile market. 1.Causes of High Market Prices The high inflation caused by the economic challenges that hit the world led to an increase in the interest rates charged by banks when securing credit facilities. The inflation rate acted negatively towards the economy by raising the rates of mortgage loan which translated into high costs of owning a house (Haber 2015). Changes in housing prices depend on the status of the economy and the availability of finance. Therefore, the limited availability of funds owing to high rates led to high cost of construction which transformed into a high cost of obtaining houses whether through credit finance or one-time purchase from savings. It is important to note that considerable number of individuals purchase properties through mortgage, which serves as another reason to the high prices. The rise in the mortgage rates has a negative effect on the house prices in the two cities, more so in the case of Sydney (Crabtree 2016). The high rate of mortgage results in an increase in house prices with the channel being used by a considerable number of people to gain ownership of houses (Easthope 2014). Besides, the low wages that fail to match the increasing prices prompts individuals to seek the credit alternatives leading to adoption of mortgage loans. On the other hand, the idea of foreigners coming into Australia from countries with easy access to credit explains the rising prices in real estate ownership (DeFusco and Paciorek 2017). Individuals with huge investment capabilities opt for the investment, where they enter the market and purchase apartments. In so doing, the investors rent out the facilities in speculation for a rise in prices before selling them at competitive prices costs. Such kind of infiltration into the market leads to a growing demand for houses which subsequently pushes the costs of housing higher. As can be seen, the concept of demand and supply forces comes in to control the prices of commodities in the market. The situation brought in by a high number of investors in the market coupled by the local purchasers and the rising costs lead to a high demand for the houses which translates into a heavy price for the commodity (Hilber and Turner 2014). While the cost of construction remains high, the effects spill over to the price of selling houses that amount to the escalating costs. As a result, it is evident that the micro and macroeconomic forces have a hand in the ever high cost of house and apartment ownership in the cities in Australia. 2.Containing High Housing Prices In reducing the menace, there are several options that the government can utilize to ease the pressure in the sector. The government can reduce the issue by supporting affordable housing in the towns and offering incentives to the low-income earners to own homes. It is important to promote the interests of the locals by giving them an upper hand when it comes to purchasing of properties. There is a need to limit the number of properties in the sector that foreigners can own to reduce the frustration caused by the high demand that leads to a rise in prices (Hilber and Turner 2014). Moreover, the government should increase the rate for foreign investors in the sector to discourage the high infiltration into the housing sector that could potentially lead to doubling of the house prices. For instance, foreign students purchasing the houses must be required to sell once leaving to their home countries to allow the locals have access to the homes for posterity reasons. Correspondingly, it is prudent for the government to support the growing workforce by introducing an incentive in the sector. The first time house owners should be given a waiver or a lower interest rate as opposed to having a uniform rate for all individuals. According to Kim and e Mauborgne (2014), housing should be treated as a fundamental right and in this case allowing first-time owners easy access to finance while charging the second and subsequent owners the standard rate. Notably, it would be good for the government to increase the rate for foreign home owners to give the locals an upper hand since they contribute immensely to the taxes used in paying for infrastructures and government running. Alternatively, the government needs to check the issue of wages and provide a policy towards increasing the pay level of individuals to match the demands and costs of living. Setting the level at optimum levels with the housing prices would enhance the ability of the locals in the cities to own houses at competitive prices (Mian and Sufi 2015). At the same time, the government can opt for the solution of reducing taxes on the environmentally friendly construction material to lessen the cost of construction while remaining responsible to the environment. By so doing, it would guarantee a double benefit for the people and the environment. Eventually, the government can encourage regional development and improve the public transport sector to allow individuals work in the city but live elsewhere where there exists little pressure on the housing sector. While doing so, caution must be taken by the government to allow affordable housing structures and institutional ownership of properties to reduce the likelihood of individuals using the sector for business by anticipating for high prices. Investors anticipation for high prices raises the case of escalating costs of housing. In so doing, the government would protect the locals who desire to have affordable housing. 3.Affording a Cheaper Housing in the High Price Mortgage Environment The high prices in houses pose a challenge to young professionals who might not afford to secure and successfully remit payments to the mortgage financiers (Chan, Haughwout and Tracy 2015). In this respect, seeking other options of finance and purchase becomes viable for success. It is important to do a lot of savings while working to secure sufficient deposit for a house. In easing the pressure caused by the high costs of property, one can opt for a shared ownership by getting into a social circle that desires to own a house (Bachmann, Berg, and Sims 2015). In such a situation, individuals can provide a deposit to gather the required amount for owning a property. The advantage of the option guarantees individuals with the right to pay a little deposit and pay lower rates of the mortgage as the risk is shared between people under the ownership. Alternatively, a professional can opt for assistance through a contribution from friends and family to raise the initial deposit and part payment for the mortgage as one continues to save money towards meeting the other part of the bargain. The option leaves one with little frustrations rather than trying to raise the finance in solitude. Parental assistance is essential to home ownership, where an individual upon working for a considerable time can manage to pay the rest of the money thus ending up owning a house (Arnold, Drger and Fritsche 2014). Lastly, the third option lies in saving and asking for support from friends and family to secure sufficient funds for an auction buy. Auctions offer considerable prices for individuals who upon winning a bid have access to home ownership at a considerable price (Campbell and Cocco 2015). The option is the cheapest as it depends on the balance one had to pay to determine the housing cost of property under auction. In this respect, one should get in a relationship with an auction firm to inform or send the latest updates on auction offers and wait for a probable offer to utilize in a purchase. Conclusion The rising costs in the real estate sector present a worrying trend to home owners. The effects of inflation giving rise to increased interest rates make home ownership a difficult affair. In easing the pressure, the government should work towards resolving the issues through creation of a monetary policy towards economic growth. Going for cheaper options serve as a method towards securing a cheaper home coupled by exploring the purchase of auctioned property. Conclusively, the volatile market can be overcome by economic solutions based on the adjustment in monetary policies which leads to ease of accessing properties around the cities of Australia. Reference List Arnold, E., Drger, L. and Fritsche, U., 2014.Evaluating the Link between Consumers' Savings Portfolio Decisions, their Inflation Expectations and Economic News(No. 2/2014). DEP (Socioeconomics) Discussion Papers, Macroeconomics and Finance Series. Bachmann, R., Berg, T.O. and Sims, E.R., 2015. Inflation expectations and readiness to spend: cross-sectional evidence.American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,7(1), pp.1-35. Campbell, J.Y. and Cocco, J.F., 2015. A model of mortgage default.The Journal of Finance,70(4), pp.1495-1554. Chan, S., Haughwout, A. and Tracy, J.S., 2015. How mortgage finance affects the urban landscape. Crabtree, L., 2016. 10 Unbounding home ownership in Australia.Housing and Home Unbound: Intersections in Economics, Environment and Politics in Australia, p.173. DeFusco, A.A. and Paciorek, A., 2017. The interest rate elasticity of mortgage demand: Evidence from bunching at the conforming loan limit.American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,9(1), pp.210-240. Easthope, H., 2014. Making a rental property home.Housing Studies,29(5), pp.579-596. Haber, H., 2015. Regulation as social policy: Home evictions and repossessions in the UK and Sweden.Public Administration,93(3), pp.806-821. Hilber, C.A. and Turner, T.M., 2014. The mortgage interest deduction and its impact on homeownership decisions.Review of Economics and Statistics,96(4), pp.618-637. Kim, W.C. and e Mauborgne, R., 2014.Blue ocean strategy, expanded edition: How to create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant. Harvard business review Press. Mian, A. and Sufi, A., 2015.House of debt: How they (and you) caused the Great Recession, and how we can prevent it from happening again. University of Chicago Press. Wood, G.A., Smith, S.J., Cigdem, M. and Ong, R., 2017. Life on the edge: a perspective on precarious home ownership in Australia and the UK.International Journal of Housing Policy,17(2), pp.201-226.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

To What Extent Was The French Revolution Caused By Economic Depression Essay Example For Students

To What Extent Was The French Revolution Caused By Economic Depression Essay In June 1789 the French revolution had begun. For the next five years there would be bloodshed throughout France, the country was going through a radical change, the change in sovereignty and the failure of the constitutional monarchy being two examples of this. But to what extent was all this caused by economic distress? Before being able to answer the question, one would have to establish the definition of ‘economic distress’ it could be defined as the misery people (especially the peasantry) faced due to low income and tax inflation or the misery that the entire country was in due to the enormous debts, which had accumulated due to the wars, which were fought. The economic situation was only one of the elements that caused the people to question the monarchy in pre-revolutionary France. France was in great debt and almost bankrupt but this did not stop them from fighting wars. The debt – an economic problem – turned into a social one, when the peasants w ere taxed heavily in order to pay for the debt, this caused them to question greatly their position in society and the effectiveness of their monarchy. Drought and other natural disasters ruined crop production, causing food prices to rise dramatically. With taxes rising and prices too, peasants were living in famine and in poor living conditions. The enlightenment was able to inspire revolutionary thoughts within the people. People began to abandon their beliefs in divine right and focused more on the thoughts of equality and society being run for the benefit of all. The economic situation only made people realize other problems concerning politics and society. A revolution (The complete overthrow of an established government or social order by those previously subject to it) would mean complete reform of political, ideological and economical beliefs, so for such a drastic change to be necessary there would need to be problems in all of these areas to begin with. We will write a custom essay on To What Extent Was The French Revolution Caused By Economic Depression specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In Pre-revolutionary France there were three estates the first estate (clergy), the second estate (nobles) and the third estate (bourgeoisie, peasantry and urban workers). Most of the clergy came from noble backgrounds, as it was usual for the youngest sons of wealthy families to join the church in order to share its wealth. The church’s wealth came from tithes (a proportion or the each year’s crop paid to the church by landowners) and the vast amount of land that it owned. They clergy were exempt from taxes; instead they negotiated a don gratuit with the king. The don gratuit was an annual payment to the crown and was always much less than what would have to be paid in normal taxation. The church had a great deal of power too as the state religion was Catholicism, it was their duty to spread to ideas of divine right. The second estate was by far, the wealthiest and most powerful. They were exempt from paying direct taxes (until the 1749 vingtieme when they still paid less than they would have done if they were from the third estate) and doing military service such as the corvee (forced labour on roads) and made their money through the land they owned (between 15% and 25% of all land in France). They also receives seigneural (feudal) dues which were fees that the peasants were obligated to pay in order to use the lord’s mill, oven, wine press, breeding stock, death taxes, inheritance taxes and sale-of-property taxes. The third estate was made up of three parts; the bourgeoisie, who were the wealthiest and most educated part of the estate, many of them being financiers, landowners, doctors, writers and civil servants. It was also possible for wealthy bourgeoisie to buy venal offices to become nobles (however, most ennobling offices requires at least two generations of owners before nobility could be bought. The other part of the estate was the peasantry. It was the least wealthy and most numerous (85% of the French population lived in the c ountryside and most were peasants). Many of the peasants were laboureurs (people who grew enough food to feed themselves, these were the people who found it especially hard when the crop was damaged due to bad weather conditions in 1769-71, 1778-79, 1781-82, 1785-86 and above all 1788-89. Other peasants who were also greatly affected by this were the sharecroppers who had no capital and gave half their produce to their landlords. All peasants had to pay feudal dues such as the corvee, tithes to the church and also had to pay taxes such as the taille, vingtieme, capitation, and gabelle. Peasants also had to pay rents, which increased greatly between 1705 and 1789 to add to their expenses. The third part of the estate was the urban workers who were unskilled and poor. They were subjected to appalling living and working conditions and the famine hit them the hardest as they could not afford the bread which formed three quarters of the workers diet. Pre-revolutionary France was run unde r an autocratic regime. The monarchy was absolute, its powers consisted of: The National System of Justice, their role with the catholic church, the right to order taxation and leader of the military forces, a successful leader would need to be able to handle this power with confidence and good judgment. Louis XVI was too weak, far too indecisive and all in he was not the sort of person who should have held such responsibilities. The basis of the revolution was established when Louis XIV came to the throne. He was an absolute monarch who caused the nobles dislike of monarchy by reducing their power and taking them away from their land. In 1661 Louis spent $100 million to build the Versailles palace, his lavish spending left the country with a huge debt. He also spent a great deal of money fighting a series of wars in an attempt to dominate Europe. Louis XV was no more successful, he attempted to reform the unjust taxation by forcing the formerly exempt nobility and clergy to pay tax this was amended after his death. In 1771 the parlements were regrouped and stripped of their powers to obstruct royal decrees, this introduced the idea of the king being a despotic leader (a leader who acts illegally). Louis XV also spent vast amounts of money on 3 unsuccessful wars; the war of the Polish succession, the war of the Austrian Succession and the seven years war where France lost all of its overseas colonies to Britain, adding to the debt and causing the people to believe that the king was responsible for France’s loss of power. Louis XVI was weak foolish and extremely indecisive. His weakness was evident when instead of implementing tax reforms he avoided the nobility and just kept on borrowing money, creating a cycle of constant loans, by 1786 the debt totaled 3 billion livres and the deficit had come to 125 million livres. Another thing, which the French public hated about the monarchy, was that the queen was Marie Antoinette; to them she was the symbol of an unnatural alliance with Austria, which had led to France’s defeat in the seven years war. She greatly influenced the decisions of the king, for example the comptroller-general, Turgot, was sacked because she disliked him. Louis’ indecisiveness is shown in the way he dealt with extremely important matters, for example; it took six months to discuss the recall of the parlement in 1774, in 1778 the entry into the American war of independence took two years of deciding and the convocation of the assembly of notables in 1787 (where there was urgency) took five months. It was clear that Louis was not fit to be a king. .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d , .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .postImageUrl , .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d , .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d:hover , .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d:visited , .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d:active { border:0!important; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d:active , .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u12887faff266160c10247ac19089bb2d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Microsoft Essay ThesisThe biggest long-term problem next to the king and the extreme social inequality was tax. The main direct tax – the taille – that was a tax on land only applied to peasants, exemptions were granted to towns and nobles. Another tax was the capitation (poll tax) and the vingtieme (five per cent levy on all incomes). Along with the direct taxes, there were also indirect taxes such as the gabelle (salt tax), aides on food and drink and the octrois on goods entering the town. These posed more of a problem for the peasantry and the urban workers, as it did not take into account their low income. The tax therefore became a controversial issue a s it caused the peasants to question their role in society and wants to change it. It was intended for the money from taxes to cover the expenditure, but due to bad tax collection methods they rarely received as much money as they were supposed to. Indirect taxes were collected by the farmers-general who would pay a lump sum to the government in advance and keep any extra, direct taxes were collected by accountants (venal office holders who bought their positions and could not be dismissed), they often used the money for their own purposes. The lack of a central treasury meant that the comptroller-general could not track the fianc?s of the country; it was therefore difficult to judge how much money there was to spend. Due to the lack of money being received through taxes, the government had to borrow money, so payment of interest became a large part of government expenditure in the eighteenth century. The lack of fiscal equality and the circumstances under which taxation was issued (unsuccessful wars) caused great resentment among the third estate, it caused them to want change and to have a say in the way the country was run. These long-term problems caused a number of short-term problems, beginning with the summoning of the Estates-General. After Turgot was dismissed in 1776, the king appointed Necker who forced him to make all classes to pay tax. However, the 13 parlements (which had to vote for an act in order for it to be passed) opposed many of the royal edicts, which proposed change to the system of taxation and proclaimed that any change in the system of taxation ought to be voted on by the nation, so immediately an estates-general was set up. It was hoped that this would remedy the problem over taxation but this only caused more dislike for the monarchy and for the classes to firstly become hostile toward each other, and then united in the fight against the monarchy. When the first and second estates called for a vote on the matter of taxation, the third estate declared that they should have double representation and voting by head instead of order (each person’s vote counted instead of eac h estate). This was so that issues concerning inequality might not go unheard. On June 20th 1789, the members of the third estate went to the Hotel des menus for a meeting that had been called to sort out the conflict between the estates however, the door was locked in order to prepare for a royal session. They then went to a nearby tennis court where they made an oath: â€Å"Let us swear to God and our country that we will not disperse until we have established a sound and just constitution, as instructed by those who nominated us†. They then decided to call themselves the ‘National Assembly’ and following this, 151 clergy and 47 nobles joined the third estate, and the estates were now united – against the king. Another of the short-term problems was to do with agriculture. In the late 1700’s 20 million of the 26 million people in France lived from land. Many peasants were too poor to afford their own livestock to many of them were metayers or sharecroppers. This meant that the landlord provided the equipment and livestock in exchange for the labour and half of the produce of the peasants. Peasants with minimum income found it extremely difficult as they had to give up almost everything they had; half of produce to the lord, paid feudal dues (fees they had to pay to the lord to use his mill, oven, wine press, breeding stock, death taxes, inheritance taxes, and sale-of-property taxes) and also the taxes demanded by landlord, church and state. As the country edged more and more towards bankruptcy the peasants were faced with tax inflation, this caused great tension between second and third estates. A lot of the people from the third estates were the lords who were responsible for the gr owing burden of seigneural dues. Had the nobles paid taxes, the burden on the peasants would have been considerably less, as it would have been more spread out amongst the population. In the years of 1769-71, 1778-79, 1781-82, 1785-86 and 1788-89 there were repeated harvest failures due to drought and other natural disasters, causing there to be a shortage of food leaving the country in recession. This caused there to be less demand for manufactured goods, causing peasants and urban workers to become unemployed. This was disastrous for them because the food prices were going up and because they were now unemployed they had no income to pay for their food, this caused over 70% of the population to be in famine, while the other 30% were either just being able to get along or benefiting from the rise in prices. Normally, a worker would spend up to 50% of his earnings on bread, but between August 1788 and February 1789 prices had gone up by 50%. So by the time it got to spring 1789, a w orker would find himself paying 88% of his wages on bread. This famine, which spread across the country, caused a number of riots from peasants. On April 28th the house and factory of a wallpaper manufacturer – Reveillon – was burned down because it was rumoured that he would reduce the wages of his workers, Also, some peasants in Versailles entered the kings palace and threatened to kill Marie Antoinette demanding that they give them bread it was clear to see that they were in desperation, and this just showed the lengths they were willing to go to. The peasantry, who, for centuries had remained completely content in their social position were now making sure that their voice was heard in the only way they could – through violence. The tension between the estates and the monarchy and against each other was becoming disastrous and changes had to be made. .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc , .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .postImageUrl , .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc , .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc:hover , .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc:visited , .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc:active { border:0!important; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc:active , .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6581832deb0c1129d24cafc6738fa6fc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: â€Å"A Horse and Two Goats† by R.K Narayan Sample EssayPeasants started to listen to the ideas of the bourgeoisie, who had adopted revolutionary ideas from America (because a lot of them went to fight there). The peasants related to the hardships of the bourgeoisie but it seemed that although they were fighting to defend the rights of the third estate by establishing a constitution, they had lost track of what was really wrong – the famine. The peasants and the bourgeoisie started to become divided in their priorities. Before, they were united against the monarchy, but the problems with agriculture and inflation meant that the peasantry was much worse off, c ausing them to want different things, especially within the economy. The peasantry wanted a controlled economy with no free trade, while the bourgeoisie wanted free trade and a completely capitalist state. The ideas of the enlightenment evoked revolutionary ideas in both second and third estates although many of the ideas of the philosophes themselves were not entirely revolutionary. The ideas of such people as Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau were able to reach everyone, as there was a rise in literacy and publishing. The need for equality and freedom was reflected in the work of Rousseau and Voltaire and the concepts of general will was founded on the basis of Rousseau’s â€Å"Forcing Man to be Free†. The â€Å"Declaration des Droits de L’homme et du citroyen† (Declaration of the rights of man) caused people to question the ‘letters de cachet’ (the rights that the king had to imprison someone at his own will) however, it did not in any way mention a change in the way the peasants were able to have a say in the social or political aspects. Philosophical thinkers such as Overall, we cannot put the cause of the revolution completely down to the economic distress that the country was facing as this was only really aimed at the peasants. For a revolution to occur, there would need to be a swift, radical change in social, economical and ideological beliefs, so there must have been a huge problem in all three of these areas to begin with, not just one. Past problems with the wars (e.g. the seven years war) caused the country to be in debt as well as causing resentment amongst the people and for them to question how successful the monarchy was. It was left to the peasants to carry the load of the debts, which kept on increasing while the first and second estate did not have to pay any taxes, this made them aware of the unfairness of the social hierarchy. They became even more aware of this when they faced starvatio n and the wealthy landowners benefited in the high prices of grain causing them to want a change in the economical situation of the country (more controlled and less free trade). The nobility could hold as much blame for the revolution as the king as they were the people who made up the parlement and refused to accept any reform to taxes, which was what caused the most conflict. Although the monarchy and church blamed the philosophers of the enlightenment for spreading revolutionary ideas, their ideas were not actually revolutionary. The church was worried because their beliefs brought about an alternative to Christianity and the social hierarchy, which they had lived with for so longEuropean History